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100 Voices: Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Crow, Arikara and American Eye-witness accounts of the Battle of the Little Bighorn

100 Voices: Full List * Crow/Arikara * Sioux/Cheyenne * American * Rosebud

Guided Tours: Crazy Horse at the Little Bighorn * Crazy Horse at the Rosebud

Features: Who Killed Custer? * Who Killed Custer? Audio Book
Features: Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger * Winter Count of Crazy Horse's Life
Features: Bogus Crazy Horse Photos * Unsung 7th Cavalry Scouts Saga
Features: Indian Battlefield Tactics * Woman Warriors
* Little Bighorn Maps
Features: U.S. Medal of Honor Winners * U.S. Atrocities * Indian Atrocities
Features:
Little Bighorn Mysteries * Virtual Museum

Source materials for "Conversations With Crazy Horse" by Bruce Brown

This is a FREE EXCERPT from
Bruce Brown's 100 Voices...

The Twisted Saga Of...
The Unsung 7th Cavalry Scouts
Arikara, Crow and Sioux scouts at the Battle of the Little Bighorn

From official Seventh Cavalry records and interviews with survivors.

Note

"Prairie Watch" by Martin Grelle

THE STORY of the U.S. Army's "wolves" -- the Crow term for scouts -- at the Little Bighorn is easily the most confused part of the whole tangled tragedy.

Going on two centuries after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, it's still impossible to answer basic questions about the scouts who were with George A. Custer on June 25, 1876 -- such as what were their names, how many were killed, and what were the identities of the dead.

Arikara scout Little Brave, who was killed at the Battle of the Little BighornToday, the Accepted Consensus View of American Little Bighorn scholars holds that three Ree (or Arikara) scouts for the U.S. Army were killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn -- Bloody Knife, (actually a half-Sioux / half-Arikara guide), Bobtailed Bull and Little Brave -- although this number is not supported by either the eye-witness record or the confused, incomplete and contradictory Seventh Cavalry records.

On the Indian side, Horn Chips said Crazy Horse told him that five of the Seventh Cavalry's Ree scouts were killed by the Sioux and Cheyenne at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

The eye-witness record of the battle indicates that the truth is probably closer to what Crazy Horse said than the Americans. Eye-witness accounts by Sioux warriors Eagle Elk, Turning Hawk, White Cow Walking, Cheyenne warriors Wooden Leg, Brave Bear and Turkey Legs, and the pictographic history of Oglala Sioux by Amos Bad Heart Bull indicate that more than a half dozen unidentified U.S. Army scouts died with Custer.

Here are nine unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatalities reported in eye-witness accounts from Astonisher.com's 100 Voices, the largest and most complete collection of eye-witness accounts of the Little Bighorn ever assembled:

1) Cheyenne warriors Wooden Leg and Turkey Legs both described Cheyenne warrior Crooked Nose killing a "war bonnet Indian belonging with the soldiers" after a protracted chase through a slough in the timber along the river early in the Reno fight. Unfortunately, Seventh Cavalry records provide no information on this individual at all, and the conventional wisdom of Little Bighorn authors is equally unhelpful.

The Accepted Consensus View of the Little Bighorn holds that three Seventh Cavalry scouts were killed during the battle, but they are all known to have died elsewhere under different cicumstances. Here are the details of Bloody Knife, Bobtailed Bull and Little Brave's deaths...

Bloody Knife and George a. Custer in the Black Hills* According to both George Herendeen and Edward S. Godfrey, Bloody Knife (who was wearing a star spangled hankerchief Custer had given him, not a war bonnet) was killed standing at Reno's side near beginning of the fighting in a clearing in the timber by a sudden, unexpected fusilade from the trees.

* Bobtailed Bull was killed a few minutes later at the river in a mounted duel, probably with Cheyenne suicide warrior Little Whirlwind.

* Little Brave was wounded at the river and killed a little later on the east side of the river "behind a little sage brush knoll." Here is Brave Bear's story of counting coup on Little Brave.

So who was the "war bonnet Indian belonging with the soldiers" that Crooked Nose killed along the slough? At this point, no one knows. This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #1.

2) The Accepted Consensus View of Little Bighorn scholars is that Bobtailed Bull was the Ree scout Eagle Elk described the "Stripped Man" (High Horse?) grappling and then killing on the ground during Marcus Reno's frantic "charge" to the river, but actually this can't be true because Bobtailed Bull was killed in the saddle -- perhaps by the young Cheyenne suicide warrior Whirlwind -- as evidenced by the blood all over the front of his saddle noted by Arikara scout Red Bear. So who did the "Stripped Man" kill? This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #2.

3-5) Besides, the Accepted Consensus View of the Battle is that Bobtailed Bull was also the scout killed by Turning Hawk, even though Turning Hawk clearly and specifically stated he killed a Sioux scout named Brush on the east side of the river. There is no one named Brush (Sioux or otherwise) on Varnum's Scout Roster, but there is an Arikara named Bush. Could this be the person Turning Hawk killed? Either way, the Stripped Man and Turning Hawk can't have killed the same person in different encounters! Turning Hawk said he also killed two other Seventh Cavalry scouts -- "one Sioux and one Crow" -- earlier in the Reno fight. These are unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatalities #3, 4 and 5.

6) White Cow Walking, the son of Horned Horse, said he killed a "soldier scout" named Crow Flies High in the valley fight. There is no scout named Crow Flies High listed on any of the known scout rosters. This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #6.

7) Crazy Horse's brother-in-law, Brule Sioux warrior Red Feather, said he and Kicking Bear killed a Seventh Cavalry scout on the east side of the river. This fatality could be Arikara scout Little Brave, except for the fact that Red Feather described how he and Kicking Bear saw two scouts wearing white shirts and blue pants cross the river together and gave chase. The details of Red Feather and Kicking Bear's kill do not agree with the description by Arikara scout Red Bear of how he found Little Brave alone and wounded on the east bank of the river shortly before he was killed. This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #7.

8) There is a slight possibility that the "Hunkpapa who was with the soldiers" killed by Sioux woman warrior Moving Robe could have been Isaiah Dorman (the black former slave who married a Lakota woman and was befriended by Hunkpapa Sioux chief Sitting Bull before betraying the Sioux) as the Accepted Consenus View of the Battle has it, but more likely he was one of half dozen or more mercinary Sioux who were scouting and/or interpreting for Custer's Seventh Cavalry on June 25, 1876.

Arikara scout Red BearThe Arikara Narrative states that four Sioux scouts acccompanied Custer's Arikara scouts, and gives their names as Ca-roo or Karu (Cards), Ma-tok-sha (Red Bear), Mach-pe-as-ka (White Cloud) and Pta-a-te (Whole Buffalo or Buffalo Body or Buffalo Anscestor), but only two of these names appear on Varnum's Seventh Cavalry Scout List, and one of them (Caroo or Cards), was supposedly discharged prior to the battle, according to the U.S. Army records cited by Walter Mason Camp, who stated that Caroo was also known as Bear Running In The Timber, even though Camp's own Scout List has Bear Running In The Timber as another Sioux mercinary named Matochun Way A Ga Mun. Meanwhile, Arikara scout Running Wolf testified that Caroo was still in the service of the American Army -- specifically Gen. George Crook -- immediately after the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

David Humphreys Miller gives the names of the four Sioux mercinaries as "White Cloud, Buffalo Ancestor, Red Bear (not to be confused with the Arikara scout of that name), and Caroo," and said they were all "married to Arikara women."

But actually there were more Sioux with Custer that day. In addition to Matochun Way A Ga Mun, Camp's Scout List mentions another Sioux scout, Bear Come Out (Mato Hinapa). Arikara scout Strikes Two also mentioned a Sioux scout named Watoksha. In Custer in '76, Kenneth Hammer, wrote: "Watoksha, also spelled Watokshu by Camp, was a Dakota Sioux scout also known as Ring Cloud, Spotted Horn Cloud, and Round Wooden Cloud." However, Walter Mason Camp's own Scout List in Custer in '76 gives Round Wooden Cloud's Sioux name as Machpa Gachumga.

Walter S. Campbell mentions another Seventh Cavalry scout with a Sioux name, Buffalo Cloud, whom he says was a Ree who spoke Lakota. Campbell places Buffalo Cloud in the heat of the action during Reno's flight, when he killed two Cheyenne warriors, Swift Bear and White Eagle. There is, however, no further mention of Buffalo Cloud, or whether he survived the battle.

And Arikara scout Red Bear mentioned the presence of the "half-breed Dakota interpreter, E-esk," who is on none of the scout lists. E-esk is sometimes identified as half-breed interpreter Billy Cross, but there is disagreement among primary sources on this point.

Was one of these Sioux mercinaries the "Hunkpapa who was with the soldiers" killed by Moving Robe? There is no way or knowing at this point, but there are certainly plenty of reasonable possibilities without having to turn a black man into a Hunkpapa. This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #8.

9) Finally, in his Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioiux, Amos Bad Heart Bull depicts his father, Bad Heart Bull, killing another unidentified Army scout. This is unidentified Seventh Cavalry scout fatality #9.

Bobtailed BullThe tragi-comic problem that the Accepted Consensus View of the Battle of the Little Bighorn faces here is that there are more dead bodies lying around in the eye-witness record of the battle than it has identities to cover them.

Because conventional American authors are all wedded to the peculiar, unsubstantiated notion that only three Indian mercinaries died with the Seventh Cavalry at the Little Bighorn, they are forced to play an endless game of "The Sheet's Too Short" with the identities of the Indian dead, making Bobtailed Bull the scout killed by the "Stripped Man" until he's needed to be the scout killed by Turning Hawk, etc.

Then there's the amazing story of Chat-ka (see below). And who knows -- there may even be more. But whatever their number, these unknown men gave their lives for America, where they remain unsung and unhonored to this day.

Somehow, over the last century and a half, an ungrateful America never found the time to identify all the Native Americans who died fighting for the United States on June 25, 1876.

* * *

BURIED IN the scout annals is one of the most poignant of all the Little Bighorn stories, that of the Sioux warrior Chat-ka, who also scouted for Custer and the Seventh Cavalry. Chat-ka was discharged from the U.S. Army in June 1876 and joined the huge encampment of free Sioux and Cheyenne Indians on the Little Bighorn shortly before the battle.

Whatever warning Chat-ka brought did little good, though, because Custer pushed all night on June 24 - 25, and threw his tired men and horses into battle immediately, which the Sioux and Cheyenne did not expect, for all their keen scouting intelligence and the Cheyenne decoy / scouts that Crazy Horse scrambled that morning when he learned from Fast Horn that Custer was at the Crow's Nest at dawn.

When Custer attacked, Chat-ka fought for the free Sioux and Cheyenne against his former comrades in the Seventh Cavalry, and was killed. Arikara scout Young Hawk found Chat-ka's corpse afterwards in the abandoned Indian village:

"He had on a white shirt, the shoulders were painted green, and on his forehead, painted in red, was the sign of a secret society. In the middle of the camp they found a drum and on one side lying on a blanket was a row of dead Dakotas with their feet toward the drum... This drum was cut up and slashed."

Chat-ka's name does not appear on any surviving Seventh Cavalry scout list. If Car-oo was actually present at the battle, as Arikara scout Strikes Two said, then Chat-ka may be another name for one of the Sioux scouts identified as Broken Penis, The Shield or Left Hand in Walter Mason Camp's notes, since these three Sioux scouts were likewise apparently discharged from the U.S. Army shortly before the battle. Another possibility is that Chat-ka was another name for Buffalo Cloud, mentioned by Walter S. Campbell.

Another point of confusion: W.A. Graham names the Ree scouts killed at the Little Bighorn as Bloody Knife (a guide, actually), Bobtailed Bull and Stab, but Stab apparently didn't die in the battle. (Here are descriptions of Stab arriving safely at the Powder River on June 26 by Arikara scouts Strikes Two and Little Sioux.) Hardorff and most recent writers name the third dead Ree scout as Little Brave, but the name Little Brave isn't even on Graham's list of Arikara scouts. You get the idea.

To try to shed some light on The Twisted Saga of the Unsung Seventh Cavalry Scouts, Astonisher.com offers the Seventh Cavalry Scout List of Arikara scout Boychief, plus the lists of two respected, early Little Bighorn scholars, Walter Mason Camp and W.A. Graham.

Click here for further notes...

-- Bruce Brown
July 15, 2007
Updated December 12, 2010

Curley at the Little Bighorn 3D Map

from The Custer Myth by W.A. Graham...
VARNUM'S ARIKARA DETACHMENT

Lt. Charles VarnumOn 25 June 1876, therefore, {Lt. Charles] Varnum had in his Scout detachment, forty-one Arikara Indians, whose names, as gathered from available authentic sources, were as follows:

1. William Baker

2. Barking Wolf

3. Bear

4. Bear Come Out

5. Bears Eyes

6. Bear Running in the Timber

7. Black Calf

8. Black Fox

9. Black Porcupine

10. Bull

11. Bull in the Water

12. Bush

13. Climbs the Bluff

14. Cross William

15. Curly Head

16. Foolish Bear

17. Forked Horn

18. Good Elk

19. Good Face

20. Goose

21. Horns in Front

22. Howling Wolf

23. William Jackson

24. Laying Down

25. Long Bear

26. One Feather

27. One Horn

28. Owl

29. Rushing Bull

30. Round Wooden Cloud

31. Sioux (Little Sioux?)

32. Soldier

33. Stab (Stabbed?)

34. Strike Bear (Red Star)

35. Strike the Lodge

36. Strikes Two

37. Wagon

38. White Cloud

39. White Eagle

40. Wolf Runs

41. Young Hawk

To the above, however, must be added the names of "Bloody Knife," known as Custer's favorite scout, and of Bob-tailed Bull, both of whom were members of a separate detachment, though nominally under Varnum's command on 25 June. These two scouts were killed during Reno's engagement in the valley, as also was the scout "Stab." The records indicate that about half of the detachment disappeared during the battle, but rejoined the command on 28 June 1876, which would appear to disprove a statement frequently made that those who left for parts unknown during the battle were not seen again until months thereafter.

It is noteworthy, and a circumstance for which no explanation is apparent, that several of the Arikara Indians whose stories appear in the "Arikara Narrative," are not identifiable by name as members of Varnum's detachment. These, however, may in 1876 have been known by other and different names, or they may, like Bloody Knife and Bobtailed Bull, have been members of another detachment. It is impossible to say which, if either, explanation is correct.


The Custer Myth: A Source Book of Custerania, written and compiled by Colonel W.A. Graham, The Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, PA 1953, p 27 - 31


Crow scouts White Man Runs Him and Curley by Edward S. Curtis in 1908

from Custer in '76 by Walter Mason Camp...
DETACHMENT OF INDIAN SCOUTS

Name Status Enlisted Comment
Sioux (Little Sioux): Senaru Art X Feb. 3
Young Hawk: Achta Wisi Hunne + May 9
Soldier: Kanauch X Apr. 26
Black Calf: Hunne Catis X Apr. 26
One Feather: Ha Cui Tis X May 9
Forked Horn: Arri Chitt + Apr 29
Bobtail Bull: Hocus Tarix + Apr 26
Little Brave: Naha Cus Chu Reposch + May 9
Stab: Cawars X May 9
Bull In The Water: Hocus Ty Arritt X May 9
Rushing Bull: Hocus Na Ginn X May 9
Good Face: Scari X May 9
Foolish Bear: Coonough Sen Gaagh + May 9
Strike The Lodge: Tayche - Tay Ree Che X May 9
Goose: Cosh + Apr 26
Black Fox: Chilira Two Catis X May 9
Strikes Two: Tita Waricho X May 9
Bull: Hocus X May 9
Bush: Napa Run Ough X Apr. 26
Good Elk: Wanee X May 13
Strike Bear: Coonough Tacha X May 9
White Eagle: Nata Staca X May 9
Barking Wolf: Sito Wara A May 9 Carrying dispatches in the field since June 22.
Howling Wolf: Schiri Wano A Apr. 26 On Detatched Service at Yellowstone Depot since June 22.
Wolf Runs: Schiri to Much A May 9 Carrying dispatches in the field since June 22.
Bear: Coonough A May 9 Carrying dispatches in the field since June 22.
Bear's Eyes: Coonough Cherak A Apr. 1 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since June 22.
Long Bear: Coonough Tikuchris A May 9 On Detatched Service at Yellowstone Depot since June 22.
Black Porcupine: Sami Cotis A May 9 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since May 17.
Climbs The Bluff: Teru Chitt Honochs A May 9 Carrying dispatches in the field since June 1.
Curly Head: Pichga Ri Ni A Apr. 27 Carrying dispatches in the field since June 22.
Horn In Front: Arrin Quis Coo A May 9 On Detatched Service at Yellowstone Depot since June 15.
One Horn: Achno Arricas A May 9 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since May 17.
Laying Down: Sita Wara A May 9 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since May 17.
Owl: Horr A May 13 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since June 17.
Wagon: Sapararu A May 13 On Detatched Service at Fort Lincoln since June 17.
Broken Penis: Chagoo Hurpa D Nov. 13, '75 Discharged at Fort Lincoln on May 13, 1876; did not reenlist
Cards D Nov. 13, '75 Supposedly discharged at Fort Lincoln on May 13, 1876, but actually on duty with Custer, according to the Arikara Narrative
Left Hand: Quigh Chwi D Dec. 9, '75 Discharged at Fort Lincoln on June 9, 1876; did not reenlist
Sticking Out: Bo In E Naga D May 9 '75 Discharged at Fort Lincoln on November 9, 1875; did not reenlist
The Shield: Waha Chumka D Dec. 11, '75 Discharged at Fort Lincoln on June 11, 1876; did not reenlist
Round Wooden Cloud: Machpa Gachumga X Mar. 31 Sioux
Bear Come Out: Mato Hinapa X Feb. 3 Sioux
White Cloud: Machpa A Cha - Machpa Sha X May 14 Sioux
Bear Running In The Timber: Matochun Way A Ga Mun X May 11 Sioux
William Cross X Apr. 17 1/2 Sioux
William Jackson + June 25 1/4 Pikuni
William Baker + May 4 1/2 Ree
Robert Jackson D Dec 25 '75 1/4 Pikuni
LEGEND

A = Absent on muster of detachment and did not participate in the Battle of the Little Bighhorn

D = Discharged from service six months after enlistment

X = all these were in the Valley fight and ran away to the Powder River.

+ = Scouts who remained with the command and were reported present in camp at the mouth of the Little Bighorn River June 30, 1876

Arikara scout Young HawkLt. Charles Varnum, who was assigned to command the scouts on May 3, 1876, appended the following note to the muster roll: "I certify that the scouts reported 'missing in action,' on the above muster roll, and who have been paid thereon, have duly returned to duty since muster and before payment and are entitled to pay for themselves and for furnishing their own horse and equipment, to include June 30, 1876." Signed in camp on Yellowstone River July 29, 1876. The price paid scouts for horse and equipment was 40c per day. William Jackson is noted on muster as enlisting June 25, 1876, also "Joined detachment June 25, 1876," also "On Detached Service at Ft. Lincoln Since May 17, 1876." It further appears that Jackson was discharged on the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876, by reason of expiration of service and reenlisted the same date. Goose is noted as "wounded in action June 25 and sick in hospital." Note that Bloody Knife's name does not appear on the muster. He was employed as a guide, says Varnum. From this it would appear that Bob Jackson may have remained at Ft. Lincoln when sent back with a dispatch from Little Missouri and was discharged there. He may, however, have reenlisted and got back to Powder River, as Fox states, and such fact would not have been known at the camp at Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876. It will be seen that all of these discharged scouts had enlisted in 1875. One of them (Left Hand) was discharged on the expedition. Young Hawk said that when Left Hand's time expired, he joined the Sioux, his own people, and after the battle of the Little Bighorn River his horse was found in the village and his dead body among those left in the village by the Sioux. All the rest, including Bob Jackson, were discharged at Ft. Lincoln.

Mitch Boyer, head scout for George A. Custer, killed at the Battle of the Little BighornLt. James H. Bradley, in command of Crow scots of the Seventh Infintry, further attests that the following Crow scouts were turned over to the Seventh Cavalry on June 21, 1876:

Name of scout... Assignment...
One Ahead or Goes Ahead:
Bah suk ush
With Custer
Half Yellow Face:
lss too sah shee dah
With Reno
White Swan:
Mee nah tsee us
Wounded June 25 With Reno
White Man Runs Him:
Mahrstah shee dah ku roosh
With Custer
Hairy Moccasin:
Sah pee wish ush
With Custer
Curley:
Shuh shee ohsh
With Custer

Mitch Bouyer was interpreter for Crow scouts and went with Custer. Bah suk ush (One Ahead) was paid $66.98 for April 10 to June 30, 1876-$35.10 for service and $32.80 for horse, less 92 cents for tobacco. He was paid for 2 months, 21 days at rate of $13.00 per month for service and 40 cents per day for horse and equipment. Curley, White Swan, and Half Yellow Face were the only ones reported present in camp on Little Bighorn June 30, 1876. Altogether there were 25 Crow scouts with Bradley, including the 6 sent with Custer on June 21. This looks as if they had run away from Bradley when they heard the result of the Custer fight from the 3 Crows on a.m. of June 26. Jack Rabbit Bull: Ees tah tsee dup ish was reported absent on detached service since May 29. Eetsee dahkh in dush (Horse Rider alias Thomas LaForgey) absent sick since June 24 in camp near Ft. Pease. Modern pronunciation of White Man Runs Him is Batsida Karoosh.

Custer rape scene at the Little Bighorn

Boy Chief's List of Indian Scouts*

Little Sioux: Sana Piciribust Present
Young Hawk: Nekutawisi Hani Present
Soldier: Hunach Present
Boychief: Wincu Neshanu Present
One Feather: Hach Hetu Present
Forked Horn: Ari Cit Present
Bobtailed Bull: Hugos Tarix Present
Little Brave: Nanugos Ciripas Present
Stab: Kawasach Present
Bull In The Water: Hugos Tihaart Present
Charging Bull: Hugos Tanawinach Present
Bear Good Face: Skare Present
Foolish Red Bear: Goonch Sanch Waat Present
Strike Lodge: Tekche Present
Goose: Gauht Present
Chikawu Katit Present
Strikes Two: Tita Rawici Present
Bellow: Hugos Present
Red Wolf. Sticeri Tipaat Naparanuch Present
Red Bear: Wane Goonuch Hwat Present
Red Star: Gunuch Tiche Present
Netach Staca Present
Spotted Horn Cloud: Watoksu Present
The Whole Buffalo: Tonheci Tooch Present
Machpiya Ska Nakpieska Present
Bear in Timber Present
Little Crow: Kapa Ciripas Present
Schiri Tirchiwako Absent
Howling Wolf: Schiri Tiwana Absent
Running Wolf: Schiri Doonch Absent
Foolish Bear: Goonuch Sachkunu Absent
Gunuch Chiriku Absent
High Bear: Goonuch Tiwichess Absent
Sunu Katit Absent
Terauch Chitt Hunoch Absent
Curl Hair: Pchari Wi Absent
Horns Out In Front: Arrin Quisk Absent
Hckorich Horich Absent
Ticha Absent
Owl: Horu Absent
Sapireniwoah Absent
Wolf Absent

*Since the Rees and the Crows had no written language, these names were subject to the interpretation of someone who spoke or understood these Indian languages and could translate them into English. Each interpreter perceived the meaning differently and spelled the Indian pronunciation differently, as is apparent in this and the other lists here.
"Present" and "absent" here indicate whether or not each scout was present for duty with the regiment in the Little Bighorn River fight on June 25. Those marked absent were not in the fight but were somewhere else-at Yellowstone Depot or Fort A. Lincoln or at another location.

The Scout by Frederick Remmington


Custer in '76: Walter Camp's Notes on the Custer Fight, edited by Kenneth Hammer, Brigham Young University Press 1976 p 282 - 288

NOTE:

In addition to the Indian and half-breed scouts mentioned by Graham and Camp, there were also white scouts Lonesome Charley Reynolds and George Herendeen (the former was head scout, the later was assigned to the Seventh Cavalry by Custer's commanding officer, Gen. Alfred Terry), plus Fred Gerard, nominally an interpreter but actually a scout much of the time, and Isaiah Dorman, the Black interpreter / scout.

Bouyer (or Boyer), Reynolds and Dorman died at the Little Bighorn.

* * *

On the other side, here's a synopsis of what the free Sioux and Cheyenne knew from their scouts about the Seventh Cavalry's movements before the battle, and High Dog's description of Sioux and Cheyenne scouting: "how it is done."


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100 Voices

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