"Who Killed Custer -- The Eye-witness Answer" by Bruce Brown cover

Who Killed Custer? + 100 Voices
by Bruce Brown
Web book + Audio Book Bundle

Who Killed Custer? -- the book that revolutionized Little Bighorn studies -- hotlinked to 100 Voices -- the largest and most complete collection of eye-witness accounts of the Battle of the Little Bighorn anywhere, in any form! Includes Who Killed Custer? Audio Book too!


All Searchable with your Web browser!


Astonisher.com logo

100 Voices Subscriber Entrance100 Voices Subscriber Entrance100 Voices Subscriber Entrance

100 Voices: Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Crow, Arikara and American Eye-witness accounts of the Battle of the Little Bighorn

100 Voices: Full List * Crow/Arikara * Sioux/Cheyenne * American * Rosebud

Guided Tours: Crazy Horse at the Little Bighorn * Crazy Horse at the Rosebud

Features: Who Killed Custer? * Who Killed Custer? Audio Book
Features: Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger * Winter Count of Crazy Horse's Life
Features: Bogus Crazy Horse Photos * Unsung 7th Cavalry Scouts Saga
Features: Indian Battlefield Tactics * Woman Warriors
* Little Bighorn Maps
Features: U.S. Medal of Honor Winners * U.S. Atrocities * Indian Atrocities
Features:
Little Bighorn Mysteries * Virtual Museum

Source materials for "Conversations With Crazy Horse" by Bruce Brown

This is a FREE EXCERPT from
Bruce Brown's 100 Voices...

FORTIETH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION
AN ACT,

CHAPTER 72
19 STAT 254

FORTIETH CONGRESS SECOND SESSION

CHAPTER 72, AN ACT TO RATIFY AN AGREEMENT WITH CERTAIN BANDS OF THE SIOUX NATION OF INDIANS AND ALSO WITH THE NORTHERN ARAPAHO AND CHEYENNE INDIANS.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE SENATE AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED,

that a certain agreement mad by George W. Manypenny, Henry B. Whipple, Jared W. Daniels, Albert G. Boone, Henry C. Bullis, Newton Edumunds, and Augustine S. Gaylord, commissioners on the part of the United States, with the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, and also the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians, be, and the same is hereby, ratified and confirmed:

PROVIDED, that nothing in this act shall be construed to authorize the removal of Sioux Indians to the Indian Territory and the President of the United States is hereby directed to prohibit the removal of any portion of the Sioux Indians to the Indian Territory until the same shall be authorized by an act of Congress hereafter enacted, except article four, except also the following portion of article six: "And if said Indians shall remove to said Indian Territory as hereinbefore provided, the Government shall erect for each of the principal chiefs a good and comfortable dwelling house" and said article not having been agreed to by the Sioux Nation: said agreement is in words and figures following: namely: "Articles of agreement made pursuant to the provisions of an act of Congress entitled "An act making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian Department, and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes, for the year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and for other purposes," approved August 15, 1876, by and between George W. Manypenny, Henry B. Whipple, Jared W. Daniels, Albert G. Boone, Henry C. Bullis, Newton Edumunds, and Augustine S. Gaylord, commissioners on the part of the United States, with the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, and also the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians, by their chiefs and headmen, whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to act in the premises.

"Article 1
[Reduction of the Great Sioux Reservation]

The said parties hereby agree that the northern and western boundaries of the reservation defined by article 2 of the treaty between the United States and different tribes of Sioux Indians, concluded April 29, 1868, and proclaimed February 24, 1869, shall be as follows: The western boundaries shall commence at the intersection of the one hundred and third meridian of longitude with the northern border of the State of Nebraska; thence north along said meridian to its intersection with the South Fork of the Cheyenne River; thence down said stream to its junction with the North Fork; thence up the North Fork of said Cheyenne River to the said one hundred and third meridian; thence north along said meridian to the South Branch of Cannon Ball River or Cedar Creek; and the northern boundary of the said reservation shall follow the said South Branch to its intersection with the main Cannon Ball River, and thence down the said main Cannon Ball River to the Missouri River; and the said Indians do hereby relinquish and cede to the United States all territory lying outside the said reservation, as herein, modified and described, including all privileges of hunting; and article 16 of said treaty is hereby abrogated.

"Article 2
[Roads through reservation]

"The said Indians also agree and consent that wagon and other roads, not exceeding three in number, may be constructed and maintained, from convenient and accessible points on the Missouri River, through said reservation, to the country lying immediately west thereof, upon such routes as shall be designated by the President of teh United States; and they also consent and agree to the free navigation of the Missouri River.

"Article 3
[Distribution points for Annuities to be designated]

"The said Indians also agree that they will hereafter receive all annuities provided by the said treaty of 1868, and all subsistence and supplies which may be provided for them under the present or any future act of Congress, at such points and places on the said reservation, and in the vicinity of the Missouri River.

"Article 4
[Delegation to Select Home in Indian Territory]

"The Government of the United States and the said Indians, being mutually desirous that the latter shall be located in a country where they may eventually become self-supporting and acquire the arts of civilized life, it is therefore agreed that the said Indians shall select a delegation of five or more chiefs and principal men from each band, who shall, without delay, visit the Indian Territory under the guidance and protection of suitable persons, to be appointed for that purpose by the Department of the Interior, with a view to selecting therein a permanent home for said Indians. If such delegation shall make a selection which shall be satisfactory to themselves, the people whom they represent, and to the United States, then the said Indians agree that they will remove to the country so selected within one year from this date. And the said Indians do further agree in all things to submit themselves to such beneficent plans as the Government may provide for them in the selection of a country suitable for a permanent home, where they may live like white men.

"Article 5
[Assistance, schools, rations, purchase of surplus, employment]

"In consideration of the foregoing cession of territory and rights, and upon full compliance with each and every obligation assumed by the said Indians, the United States does agree to provide all necessary aid to assist the said Indians in the work of civilization; to furnish to them schools and instruction in mechanical and agricultural arts, as provided for by the treaty of 1868. Also to provide the said Indians with subsistence consisting of a rationfor each individual of a pound and a half of beef, (or in lieu thereof, one half pound of bacon,) one-half pound of flour, and one-half pound of corn; and for every one hundred rations, four pounds of coffee, eight pounds of sugar, and three pounds of beans, or in lieu of said articles the equivalent thereof, in the discretion of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Such rations, or so much thereof as may be necessary, shall be continued until the Indians are ale to support themselves. Rations shall, in all cases, be issued to the head of each separate family; and whenever schools shall have been provided by the Government for said Indians, no rations shall be issued for children between the ages of six and fourteen years (the sick and infirm excepted) unless such children shall regularly attend school. Whenever the said Indians shall be located upon lands which are suitable for cultivation, ratins shall be issued only to the persons and families of those persons who labor, (the aged, sick, and infirm excepted;) and may provide that such persons be furnished in payment for their labor such other necessary articles as are requisite for civilized life. The Government will aid said Indians as far as possible in finding a market for their surplus productions, and in finding employment, and will purchase such surplus, as far as may be required, for supplying food to those Indians, parties to this agreement, who are unable to sustain themselves; and will also employ Indians, so far as practicable, in the performance of Government work upon their reservation.

"Article 6
[Erection of Homes]

"Whenever the head of a family shall, in good faith, select an allotment of land upon such reservation and engage in the cultivation thereof, the Government shall, with his aid, erect a comfortable house on such allotment; and if said Indians shall remove to said Indian Territory as hereinbefore provided, the Government shall erect for each of the principal chiefs a good and comfortable dwelling house.

"Article 7
[Agency employees to be married]

"To improve the morals and industrious habits of said Indians, it is agreed that the agent, trader, farmer, carpenter, blacksmith, and other artisans employed or permitted to reside within the reservation belonging to the Indians, parties to this agreement, shall be lawfully married and living with their respective families on the reservation; and no person other than an Indian of full blood, whose fitness, morally or otherwise, is not, in the opinion of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, conducive to the welfare of said Indians, shall receive any benefit from this agreement or former treaties, and may be expelled from the reservation.

"Article 8
[Indians subject to the Laws of the United States]

"The provisions of the said treaty of 1868, except as herein modified, shall continue in full force, and, with the provisions of this agreement, shall apply to any country which may hereafter be occupied by the said Indians as a home; and Congress shall, by appropriate legislation, secure to them an orderly government; they shall be subject to the laws of the United States, and each individual shall be protected in his rights property, person and life.

"Article 9
[Indians pledged to this Agreement]

"The Indians, parties to this agreement, do hereby solemnly pledge themselves, individually and collectively, to observe each and all of the stipulations herein contained, to select allotments of land as soon as possible after their removal to their permanent home, and to use their best efforts to learn to cultivate the same. And they do solemnly pledge themselves that they will at all times maintain peace with the citizens and Government of the United States; that they will observe the laws thereof and loyally endeavor to fulfill all the obligations assumed by them under the treaty of 1868 and the present agreement, and to this end will, whenever called requested by the President of the United States, select so many suitable men from each band to co-operate with him in maintaining order and peace on the reservation as the President may deem necessary, who shall receive such compensation for their services as Congress may provide.

"Article 10
[Annual census]

"In order that the Government may faithfully fulfill the stipulations contained in this agreement, it is mutually agreed that a census of all Indians affected hereby shall be taken in the month of December of each year, and the names of each head of family and adult person registered; said census to be taken in such manner as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may provide.

Article 11
[Term "reservation" defined]

"It is understood that the term reservation herein contained shall be held to apply to any country which shall be selected under the authority of the United States as the future home of said Indians.

"This agreement shall not be binding upon either party until it shall have received the approval of the President and Congress of the United States. "Dated and signed at Red Cloud agency, Nebraska, September 26, 1876.

"GEORGE W. MANNYPENNY.
HENRY B. WHIPPLE.
J. W. DANIELS.
ALBERT G. BOONE.
H. C. BULIS.
NEWTON EDMUNDS.
A. S. GAYLORD.

"Attest:
"CHARLES M. HENDLEY, Secretary.

"OGALLALLA SIOUX --- CHIEFS AND HEADMEN

"Marpiya-luta, [Red Cloud,] his x mark.
Taxunke-kokipe, [Afraid-of-his-Horse,] his x mark.
Xunka-luta, [Red Dog,] his x mark.
Taopi-cikala, [Little Wound,] his x mark.
Waxicun-taxunke, [American Horse,] his x mark.
Mato-kokipa, [Afraid-of-th-Bear,] his x mark.
Mato-yammi, [Three Bears,] his x mark.
Wakinyan-peta, [Fire-Thunder,] his x mark
Mato-luza, [Fast Bear,] his x mark.
Kangi-ho-waxte, [Crow-with-a-good-voice,] his x mark
Mato-ayuwi, [Turning Bear,] his x mark
Itunkassan-waumli, [Weasel-Eagle,] his x mark.
Warpe-xa, [Red Leaf,] his x mark.
Ixta-peta, [Fire Eyes or White Bull,] his x mark.
Pte-san-wicaxa, [Man White Cow,] his x mark.
Kangi-tanka, [Big Crow,] his x mark.
Tatauka-waxte, [Good Bull,] his x mark.
Xunkikyuha, [Sorrel Horse,] his x mark.
Itunkasan-mato, [Weasel-Bear,] his x mark.
Wahukeza-nonpa, [Two Lance,] his x mark.
Owe-xica, [Bad Wound,] his x mark.
Mato-wankantu, [High Bear,] his x mark.
Tokicu, [He-Takes-the-Enemy,] his x mark.
Akicita, [Soldier,] his x mark.
Ite-glega, [Stupid Face or Slow Bull,] his x mark.
Xunmanito-wankantu, [High Wolf,] his x mark.
Si-tanka, [Big Foot,] his x mark.
Wakinyan-ska, [White Thunder,] his x mark.
Xunki-to, [Blue Horse,] his x mark.

"Arapahoes

"Black Coal, his x mark.
Crazy Bull, his x mark.
Little Wolf, his x mark.
Sharp Nose, his x mark.
Six Feathers, his x mark.
White Horse, his x mark.

"Cheyennes

"Living Bear, his x mark.
Spotted Elk, his x mark.
Black Bear, his x mark.
Turkey Legs, his x mark.
Calfskin Shirt, his x mark.

"Dated and signed at Spotted Tail agency, Nebraska, September 23, 1876.

"BRULE SIOUX

"Sinta-gleska, [Spotted Tail,] his x mark.
Mato-luza, [Swift Bear,] his x mark.
Nom-karpa, [Two Strike,] his x mark.
Wakinyan-ska, [White Thunder,] his x mark.
Heraka-najou, [Standing Elk,] his x mark.
Hi toot, [Blue teeth,] his x mark.
Baptiste Good, his x mark.
Kangi-sapa, [Black Crow,] his x mark.
Taxunke-wakita, [Looking Horse,] his x mark.
Mato-ocin-xica, [Wicked Bear,] his x mark.
Wamli-cikala, [Little Eagle,] his x mark.
Xunka-luta, [Red Dog,] his x mark.
Miwatamo-hanska, [Tall Mandan,] his x mark.
Hitunkasan-luta, [Red Weasel,] his x mark.
Mato-wakan, [Sacred Bear,] his x mark.
Muggins, his x mark.
Ixnalawixa, [Only Male,] his x mark.
Mato-can-wegna-iyaye, [Bear-in-the-wood,] his x mark.
Hobu, [Coarse Voice,] his x mark.
No Flesh, [Conica-wanica,] his x mark.
Mato-waukantu, [High Bear,] his x mark.
Wicampi-tanka, [Big Star,] his x mark.
Akan-ka-kte, [Killed-on-horseback,] his x mark.
Ixta-ska-ska, [White Eyes,] his x mark.
Wamnionmi-akicita, [Whirlwind Soldier,] Wakinyan-cangleska, [Ring Thunder,] his x mark.
Wakingan-wamil, [Thunder Eagle,] his x mark.
Xkeca-guaxkingan, [Crazy Mink,] his x mark.
Ho-waxte, [Good voice,] his x mark.
Ta-kunankokipexni, [Afraid of Nothing, his x mark.
Cante-peta, [Fire Heart,] his x mark.
Wapaswapi, [Roast,] his x mark.
Itecantku-ze, {Yellow Breast,] his x mark.
Maza-wanapinya, [Iron Necklasce,] his x mark.
Sinte-gleska-holkxila, [Young Spotted Tail,] his x mark.
Mato-wanagi, [Bear Ghost,] his x mark.
Xunka-ixlala, [Lone Dog,] his x mark.
Pte-sanwixaxa, [White Buffalo man,] his x mark.
Maz-ixta, [Iron Eyes,] his x mark.
Asanpi, [Milk,] his x mark.
Cetahwamli, [Eagle Hawk,] his x mark.

"I certify that the foregoing treaty was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the above Ogallalla Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, at Red Cloud Agency, on the 20th day of September, A. D. 1876, and by the Brule Sioux at Spotted Tail Agency on the 223rd day of September, A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter.

"Attest,
LOUIS BORDEAUX,
WILLIAM GARNETT,
WILLIAM ROLAND,
HENRY C. CLIFFORD,
Interpreters

"The foregoing articles of agreement having been fully explained to us in open council, we, the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the various bands of Sioux Indians receiving rations and annuities at the Standing Rock agency, in the Territory of Dakota, do hereby consent and agree to all the stipulations therein contained, with the exception of so much of article four of said agreement as relates to our visit and removal to Indian Territory; in all other respects the said article remaining in full force and effect.

"Witness our hands and seals at Standing Rock agency, Territory of Dakota, this 11th day of October, A. D. 1876.

"LOWER YANCTONAIS

"Mato-nonpa, [Two Bears,] his x mark.
Tashunka-kokipapi, [He-fears-his-horse,] his x mark.
Waha, [Cotton Wood,] his x mark.
Hogan-duta, [Red Fish,] his x mark.
Mato-Gnashkinyan, [Mad Bear,] his x mark.
Cokamti, [Camp in Middle,] his x mark.
Tatamla-wanagi, [Bull's Ghost,] his x mark.
Waonzoege, [Pantaloons,] his x mark.
Mato chitika, [Brave Bear,] his x mark.
Can-Icu, [Drag Wood,] his x mark.
Iyayog-manni, [Walk out of the way,] his x mark.
Igmu-sapa, [Black Wild Cat,] his x mark.
Akicita cikala, [Little Soldier,] his x mark.
Canbpi-sapa, [Black Tomahawk,] his x mark.
Hahaka-maza, [Iron Elk,] his x mark.
Inyang-mani, [Running Walker,] his x mark.
Tashunka-witko, [Fool Dog,] his x mark.
Wanmli-napin, [Eagle Necklace,] his x mark.

"UPPER YANCTONAIS

"Nasulan-tanka, [Big Head,] his x mark.
Shunkaha-napin, [Wolf Necklace,] his x mark.
Ishta-sapa, [Black Eye,] his x mark.
Tahinca-ska, [White Dear,] his x mark.
Tatanka-luta, [Red Bull,] his x mark> Maga, [Goose,] his x mark.
Taxanonpa, [His Pipe,] his x mark.
Cante-witko, [Fool Heart,] his x mark.
Mato-wakantuya, [High Bear,] his x mark.
Tatanka-pa, [Bull Head,] his x mark.
Shunka-wanjila, [Lone Dog,] his x mark.
Mape-tanka, [Big Hand,] his x mark.

"UNCPAPAS

"Cetan-wakinyan, [Thunder Hawk,] his x mark.
Mato-cuwiyuksa, [Bear Rib,] his x mark.
Tatoke-inyanke, [Running Antelope,] his x mark.
He-maza, [Iron Horn,] his x mark.
Wakute-mani, [Walking Shooter,] his x mark.
Akicita-hanska, [Long Soldier,] his x mark.
Wicasha-wakan, [Medicine Man,] his x mark.
Ishta-ska, [White Eye,] his x mark.
Zikala-sapa, [Black Bird,] his x mark.
Nape-shica, [Bad Hand,] his x mark.
Wahukeza-luta, [Scarlet Lance,] his x mark.

"BLACKFEET

"Peji, [John Grass,] his x mark.
Kangi-iyotanks, [Sitting Crow,] his x mark.
Cante-peta, [Fire Heart,] his x mark.
Zitkala-wankantuya, [High Bull,] his x mark.
Nata-opi, [Wounded-head,] his x mark.
Tashunka-luta, [Red Horse,] his x mark.
Cetan-luta, [Red Hawk,] his x mark.

"Attest:
R. E. JOHNSTON, Captain First Infantry, Bvt Lieut. Col.,
U. S. A. Acting Indian Agent

W. D. WOLVERTON, Surgeon U. S. A.

"I certify that the foregoing agreement was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Sioux Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the said Sioux Indians at Standing Rock agency, Dak. on the 11 day of October A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter.

"Attest,
LOUIS AGARD,
WILLIAM HALSEY,
E. H. ALLISON,
Interpreters

"The foregoing articles of agreement having been fully explained to us in open council, we, the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the various bands of Sioux Indians receiving rations and annuities at the Cheyenne River agency, in the Territory of Dakota, do hereby consent and agree to all the stipulations therein contained, with the exception of so much of article four of said agreement as relates to our visit and removal to Indian Territory; in all other respects the said article remaining in full force and effect.

"Witness our hands and seals at Cheyenne River agency, Territory of Dakota, this 16th day of October, A. D. 1876.

"SANS ARC.

"Kangi-wiyaka, [Crow Feather,] his x mark.
Waanatan, [The Charger,] his x mark.
Cetan-gi, [Yellow Hawk,] his x mark.
Taku-kokip-xni, [Fearless,] his x mark.
Wiyaka-luta, [Red Feather,] his x mark.
Ho-waxte, [Good Voice,] his x mark.
Ite-xujahan, [Scare the Hawk,] his x mark.
Waiglu-xica, [Man that Hurts Himself,] his x mark.
Tantanka-ska, [White Bull,] his x mark.
Pehin-xaxa, [Red Hair,] his x mark.

"BLACKFEET

"Mato-anyuwi, [Turning Bear,] his x mark.
Wakinyah-ska, [White Thunder,] his x mark.
Ixto-xakiya, [Red Arm,] his x mark.
Hehloga, [Yearling,] his x mark.
Pa-hoton, [Sounding Head,] his x mark.
Mahpiya-gleglega, [Stripped Coat,] his x mark.
Itoye-psunpsunla, [Awkward Face,] his x mark.
Maza-napin, [Iron Necklace,] his x mark.

"TWO KETTLE

"Mato-topa, [Four Bears,] his x mark.
Ciwo-hla-mani, [Rattling Ribs,] his x mark.
Mawatani-hanska-hokxila, [Long Mandan's Son,] his x mark.
Can-haha, [The Log,] his x mark.
Tacambpi-luta, [Red Tomahawk,] his x mark.
Wokaye, [Brings the Food,] his x mark.
Mato-waaktnsya, [Forgetful Bear,] his x mark.
Xung-gleska-sapa, [Black Spotted Horse,] his x mark.
Hehaka-ska, [White Elk,] his x mark.
Mato-gleska, [Spotted Bear,] his x mark.
Cetan-luzahan, [Swift Hawk,] his x mark.
Wamniomni-luzahan, [Swift Whirlwind,] his x mark.
Taxunke-kokipapi, [Afraid-of-his-horse,] his x mark.
Hebola-nonpapa, [Good Thunder,] his x mark.
Peji-to, [Green Grass,] his x mark.
Zitkala-kinyan, [Flying Bird,] his x mark.
Taxunka-maza, [Iron Horse,] his x mark.
Ptesan-wicaxa, [White Cow Man,] his x mark.
Sinte-nonpa, [Two Tails,] his x mark.
Kinyan-axapi, [Flying Laughing,] his x mark.
Inyan-hanksa, [Long Stone,] his x mark.
Natala, [Head,] his x mark.
Xungleska, [Spotted Horse,] his x mark.
Xiyo-sapa, [Black Prairie Chicken,] his x mark.
Wakuwa-mani, [Walking Hunter,] his x mark.

"MINNECONJOU

"Magasaka, [Swan,] his x mark.
Magakxica, [The Duck,] his x mark.
Cante-wanica-wixabca, [No Heart,] his x mark.
Mahaka, [Standing Bear,] his x mark.
Ixnawasanixa, [The Half,] his x mark.
Xina-ska, [White Robe,] his x mark.
Canhpi-sapa, [Black Tomahawk,] his x mark.
Mato-wankantuya, [High Bear,] his x mark.
Winkte-nonpa, [The Keg,] his x mark.
Kankaca-luta, [Red Plume,] his x mark.
Hohanskasa, [Long Horn,] his x mark.
Mato-waxte, [Good Bear,] his x mark.
Tatanka-pabakan-najin, [Bull on the Hill,] his x mark.
Xiyo-hanska, [Tall Prairie Chicken,] his x mark.
Cetan-gleska, [Spotted Hawk,] his mark.
Inyan-boslahan, [Standing Rock,] his x mark.

"Attest,

"CHARLES A WICKOFF, Capt Eleventh Infantry,
LESLIE SMITH Capt. First Infantry, Bvt. Major, U. S. Army.

"Wm. FIELDER,
MARK WELLS,
Interpreters.

"I certify that the foregoing agreement was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Sioux Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the said Sioux Indians at Cheyenne River agency, Dakota on the 16th day of October A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter.

"The foregoing articles of agreement having been fully explained to us in open council, we, the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the various bands of Sioux Indians receiving rations and annuities at Crow Creek agency, in the Territory of Dakota, do hereby consent and agree to all the stipulations therein contained, with the exception of so much of article four of said agreement as relates to our visit and removal to Indian Territory; in all other respects the said article remaining in full force and effect.

"Witness our hands and seals at Crow Creek agency, Territory of Dakota, this 21st day of October, A. D. 1876.

"LOWER YANCTONAIS

"Wanigi-ska, [White Ghost,] his x mark.
Wanmdi-sapa, [Black Eagle,] his x mark.
Wizi, [Old Lodge,] his x mark.
Najinyan-upi, [Surrounded,] his x mark.
Mato-wtakpe, [Attacking Bear,] his x mark.
Mato-wakuwa-wicarca, [Old Man Running Bear,] his x mark.
Mato ska, [White Bear,] his x mark.
Waksuyemani, [Returns from War,] his x mark.
Cagu-ska, [White Lungs or Bear Ghost,] his x mark.
Wanmdi-wicaxa, [Eagle Man,] his x mark.
Mato-cekiyapi, [They Worship the Bear,] his x mark.
Kangi-iawakan, [Sacred Talking Crow,] his x mark.
Cetan-koyagmani, [Walks with a Hawk,] his x mark.
Maga-bobdu, [Stormy Goose,] his x mark.
Wage-hunka, [Yellow Man,] his x mark.
Nakpa-wanjina, [One Ear,] his x mark.
Onspexni, [He Don't Know,] his x mark.

"Attest;
HENRY F. LIVINGSTON,
FRANKLIN J. DE WITT.

"EDWD. ASHLEY
H. BURT,
ANTOINE LE CLAIRE,
Interpreters.

"I certify that the foregoing agreement was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Sioux Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the said Sioux Indians at Crow Creek agency, Dakota, on the 21st day of October A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter.

"The foregoing articles of agreement having been fully explained to us in open council, we, the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the various bands of Sioux Indians receiving rations and annuities at Lower Brule agency, in the Territory of Dakota, do hereby consent and agree to all the stipulations therein contained, with the exception of so much of article four of said agreement as relates to our visit and removal to Indian Territory; in all other respects the said article remaining in full force and effect.

"Witness our hands and seals at Lower Brule agency, Territory of Dakota, this 24th day of October, A. D. 1876.

"LOWER BRULES.

"Maza-oyate, [Iron Nation,] his x mark.
Tatanka-wakan, [Medicine Bull,] his x mark.
Ptesan-wicakte, [White Buffalo Cow,] his x mark.
Xiyocikala, [Little Pheasant,] his x mark.
Tatanka-pa, [Buffalo Head,] his x mark.
Marpiya-inajin, [Standing Cloud,] his x mark.
Cante-wicuwa, [Useful Heart,] his x mark.
Mato-xake-hanska, [Long Bear Claws,] his x mark.
Ixna-wica, [Only Man,] his x mark.

"Attest;
HENRY E. GREGORY,
I. D. DE RUSSY, Captain Second Infantry, U. S. A.

"ZEPHIR RENCOUNTRE,
H. BURT,
Interpreters.

"I certify that the foregoing agreement was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Sioux Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the said Sioux Indians at Lower Brule agency, Dakota, on the 24th day of October A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter.

"The foregoing articles of agreement having been fully explained to us in open council, we, the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the various bands of Sioux Indians receiving rations and annuities at the Santee reservation, in Knox County, in the State of Nebraska, do hereby consent and agree to all the stipulations therein contained, with the exception of so much of article four of said agreement as relates to our visit and removal to Indian Territory; in all other respects the said article remaining in full force and effect.

"Witness our hands and seals at Santee agency, County of Knox, State of Nebraska, this 27th day of October, A. D. 1876.

"SANTEE

"Joseph Wabashaw,
Hake-waxte, his x mark.
Wakute, [The Shooter,] his x mark.
Huxaxa, [Red Legs,] his x mark.
Marpiya-duta, [Red Cloud,] his x mark.
Wakaninihanku, his x mark.
Wamanosa, [The Thief,] his x mark.
Star Frazier, his x mark.
Pepe, [Sharp,] his x mark.
Hekanka-maza, [Iron Elk,] his x mark.
Tunkanwaxtexte, [The Good Stone God,] his x mark.
Deaniel W. Hemans,
Eli Abraham,
Geo. Paypay,
Artemas Ehuamani, his x mark.
James Paypay,

"Attest;
CHAS. H. SEARING. JOSEPH E. COOK.

"CHARLES MITCHELL,
ALFRED L. RIGGS,
Interpreters.

"I certify that the foregoing agreement was read and expained by me, and was fully understood by the above named Sioux Indians, before signing, and that the same was executed by the said Sioux Indians at Santee agency, county of Knox, and State of Nebraska, on the 27th day of October A. D. 1876

"SAML. D. HINMAN,
Official Interpreter."

Approved, February 28, 1877.


This is a FREE EXCERPT from Bruce Brown's
100 Voices

For the FULL item -- with citations, notes, footnotes, etc. -- BUY the COMPLETE 100 Voices, all of which is SEARCHABLE...

"Who Killed Custer -- The Eye-witness Answer" by Bruce Brown cover

Who Killed Custer? + 100 Voices
by Bruce Brown
Web book + Audio Book Bundle

Who Killed Custer? -- the book that revolutionized Little Bighorn studies -- hotlinked to 100 Voices -- the largest and most complete collection of eye-witness accounts of the Battle of the Little Bighorn anywhere, in any form! Includes Who Killed Custer? Audio Book too!


All Searchable with your Web browser!


© Copyright 1973 - 2015 by Bruce Brown and BF Communications Inc.

Astonisher, Astonisher.com, Conversations With Crazy Horse, 100 Voices, Who Killed Custer? and The Winter Count of Crazy Horse's Life are trademarks of BF Communications Inc.

BF Communications Inc.
P.O. Box 393
Sumas, WA 98295

(360) 927-3234

Website by Running Dog

 

Who Killed Custer Audio Book cover

"Crazy Horse In Action" by Bruce Brown on Astonisher.com

"The Unsung Seventh Cavalry Scouts Saga" by Bruce Brown on Astonisher.com

"The Complete Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger" by Bruce Brown on Astonisher.com

3D satellite maps of the Little Bighorn from Astonisher.com's 100 Voices

"Conversation With Crazy Horse," new fiction by Bruce Brown on Astonisher.com